Что такое этическая экспертиза?

Что такое этическая экспертиза?

Лекция Евгениуша Гефенаса (Литва),XVII Европейская конференция по философии медицины и здравоохранения.
Теоретическая и практическая биоэтика существует как бы независимо друг от друга. Противоречие между ними кроется в мультидисциплинарной природе самого предмета, у которого нет особой методологии, а критерии профессионализма отсутствуют. Многие авторы пишут о кризисе биоэтики, которая часто сводится к популистскому приложению этики нормативной. То, что называется биоэтикой (или медицинской этикой), зачастую является эвфемизмом для обозначения политики в области экологии (или медицины и здравоохранения). Примером может служить внесенный несколько лет назад в Государственную Думу законопроект о биоэтике,
где под прикрытием этической фразеологии протаскивались идеи религиозных фундаменталистов. Начавшись как движение протеста, целью которого было изменить взаимоотношения врача и больного и услышать голос последнего, биоэтика быстро выродилась в способ сделать карьеру. Что касается институциональной биоэтики, чаще всего существующей в форме этических комитетов, то поиски истины здесь часто приносятся в жертву консенсусу. Биоэтические декларации написаны общими и
двусмысленными фразами, где используются неопределенные термины, такие как "начало жизни" или "человеческое достоинство".Так, "равный доступ к медицинской помощи" благополучно уживается там с "оправданной дискриминацией". Сложность соединения теории и практики иллюстрируется неудачными попытками создания больничных этических
комитетов. Комитеты эти создавались главным образом с целью обучения биоэтике медицинских работников, но не нашли отклика в больничной среде - врачи и медсестры не участвуют в их работе и даже не знают об их существовании. Пытаясь ответить на вопрос, что собой представляет биоэтическая экспертиза, Гефенас уподобил биоэтику семейной медицине, где задачей врача является не специализация, а интеграция различных знаний.


Опубликовано: 28 Май 2008
Раздел: База знаний, Философия

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